Beekeepers and Honeybee Colonies
There are an estimated 115,000 – 125,000 beekeepers in the United States.1 The vast majority are hobbyists with less than 25 hives. Commercial beekeepers are those with 300 or more hives. The number of U.S. honey bee colonies producing honey in 2013 was 2.64 million (based on beekeepers who manage five or more colonies), up 4% from 2012.2 Many commercial beekeepers migrate their colonies during the year to provide pollination services to farmers and to reach the most abundant sources of nectar. Commercial beekeeping operations are frequently family businesses that are handed down from generation to generation.
12012 Industry Survey, Bee Culture Magazine
2013 Honey Crop
Honey production in 2013 from producers with five or more colonies totaled 149 million pounds, up 5 percent from 2012. The average producer price per pound was $2.121, up 6% from $1.992 in 2012. The 2013 crop was valued at $317.1 million.2
Leading Production States
Honey is produced in every state. The following states are the top five honey producing states for 2013:2
|State||Pounds Produced||Dollar Value of Production|
2National Agricultural Statistics Service, Agricultural Statistics Board, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Mar. 21, 2014.
Total U.S. consumption reached 410 million pounds in 2010 according to USDA's Economic Research Service. Based on National Honey Board assessment revenue from honey handled and imported during 2013, annual U.S. consumption is estimated at nearly 450 million pounds. The U.S. per capita consumption of honey is around 1.3 pounds per year. Honey is imported in order to meet total demand. In 2010, the share of imports in U.S. honey consumption was approximately 61 percent. (Source: USDA/ERS, Sugar and Sweetener Outlook, March 2011). With rising honey imports, the National Honey Board estimates that between 2/3 and 3/4 the honey consumed in the U.S. is now (2014) imported.
About half of the honey sold is through retail channels, with the rest being sold in bulk or for use in the foodservice industry. (Source: NHB Packer Tracking Survey)
Millions of acres of U.S. fruit, vegetable, oilseed and legume seed crops depend on insect pollination, including honey bees. According to a Cornell University study, the increased production of 2010 agricultural crops as a result of honey bee pollination is valued at more than $19 billion.
In addition to producing honey, honey bees produce beeswax and help pollinate agricultural crops, home gardens and wildlife habitat.
The USDA has estimated that 80 percent of insect crop pollination is accomplished by honey bees. Approximately one-third of the total human diet is derived directly or indirectly from insect-pollinated plants (fruits, legumes and vegetables).
The almond crop is entirely dependent on honey bee pollination. Without honey bees, there would be no almonds. More than 80 percent of the world's almonds are produced in California.3 To pollinate California's approximately 790,000 bearing acres of almonds4 requires more than a million colonies of honey bees.
3USDA/NASS, 2009 California Almond Acreage Report, April 30, 2010
42012 California Almond Acreage Report, cdfa
Numerous other crops are 90 percent dependent on honey bee pollination. Some of those crops include apples, avocados, blueberries, cherries, cranberries and sunflowers. Other crops such as cucumbers, kiwi fruit, melons and vegetables are also pollinated by honey bees.
The production of most beef and dairy products consumed in the United States is dependent on insect-pollinated legumes (alfalfa, clover, etc.). Although alfalfa hay does not require insect pollination, it is grown from seed that is entirely dependent on insect pollination. Honey bees are one of the pollinators used to pollinate alfalfa fields for seed production in California, a major source of U.S. alfalfa seed production.